December 3, 2022

 

Anemia

It is defined as  decrease in the red cell mass due to loss, destruction, or lack of production of RBCs.

 

Classification

 

 Regenerative

 

The bone marrow responds properly to the decreased red cell mass by increasing RBC production and releasing reticulocytes

Hemorrhage or hemolysis

 

 Nonregenerative

 

Decreased erythropoietin or an abnormality in the bone marrow

 

Clinical Findings

 

 Acute anemia 

 

Death may occur if more than a third of the blood volume is lost speedily and not substituted.

 

  • Tachycardia

 

  • Pale mucous membranes
  • Bounding or weak peripheral pulses

 Chronic anemia 

  • lethargy
  • weakness
  • anorexia

Diagnosis of Anemia in Animals

 

Clinical Evaluation

 

A complete history is an important part of the evaluation of an anemic animal.

  • duration of clinical signs,
  • history of exposure to toxins (eg, rodenticides, heavy metals, toxic plants),
  • drug treatments,
  • vaccinations,
  • travel history,
  • any prior illnesses.

Serologic Testing

 

A CBC, including a platelet and a reticulocyte count, will deliver information on the

severity of anemia and degree of bone marrow response

A blood smear should be evaluated for:

  • abnormalities in RBC morphology
  • size
  • RBC parasites.

Anemia can be defined as regenerative or nonregenerative and is based on classic findings noted on a CBC or blood smear evaluation.

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