December 3, 2022

Esophageal Obstruction in Large Animals

(Choke)

It is the most common disease in large animals in which the esophagus is obstructed by food or foreign objects. In Horses, the most common causal agents are beet pulp, grain, or hay. Esophageal obstruction can also occur after recovery from general anesthesia. Cattle incline to obstruct a single, solid object is beets, apples, turnips, cornstalks, potatoes, or ears of corn.

CLINICAL FINDING

 Horses

  1. Nasal Discharge Of Feed Material
  2. Dysphagia
  3. Coughing
  4. Ptyalism
  5. Anxious
  6. Arching The Neck

 

Cattle

 

  1. Free-Gas Bloat
  2. Ptyalism
  3. Nasal Discharge Of Food And Water
  4. Recumbent
  5. Protrusion Of The Tongue
  6. Extension Of The Head
  7. Bruxism
  8. Asphyxia

 

TREATMENT

 

spasmolytic drugs

acepromazine 0.05–0.1 mg/kg, IV, IM, or SC in cattle.

Sedative and muscle relaxants

  1. Xylazine 0.05 mg/kg, IM in cattle and horses
  2. Detomidine (0.02–0.05 mg/kg, IM in cattle and horses
  • Oxytocin (0.11–0.22 mg/kg, IV, once in horse

Nasogastric tube

After Obstruction Relieved

water-soaked, complete pelleted feed for at least 7–14 days in horses

In the case of Aspiration pneumonia

Antimicrobial treatment is typically 7-14 days.

  • potassium penicillin g 22,000 u/kg, iv, every 6–12 hours.
  • procaine penicillin g 22,000 u/kg, I/M, every 6–12 hours.
  • trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole 30 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours.
  • Gentamicin sulfate 6.6 mg/kg, I/V or I/M, every 24 hours.
  • metronidazole 15 mg/kg, PO, every 6 hours for anaerobic infections.

 

Anti-inflammatory drugs

  • phenylbutazone 2.2–4.4 mg/kg, po or iv, every 12 hours
  • Flunixin meglumine 1.1 mg/kg, iv, every 12 hours.

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